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Сообщение автор Admin в Вт Фев 25 2014, 19:12

Dem’anenko Y., Lykholat O.A., Sc.D., Associate Professor,
Vyshnikina O.V., PhD, Associate Professor
ACSU, Dniepropetrovsk


Meat as a source of complete proteins is a main product for normal human nutrition. The most important component of the meat is proteins. The bulk of them are provided valuable, digestible proteins used by the body to build their tissues. Proteins of meat ensure the development and metabolism in humans and serve as a basis to build cells, tissues and organs, the formation of enzymes and hormones. Inadequate protein diet leads to disruption of the brain, central nervous system, endocrine, circulatory system. Questions about the use of hormones in meat production are very important in today's time because these drugs can affect human health, in most cases - negative. Residual amounts of hormones in meat can significantly disrupt hormonal processes and cause serious diseases in humans [1].
Growth promoters including hormonal substances and antibiotics are used legally and illegally in food producing animals for the growth promotion of livestock animals. Hormonal substances still under debate in terms of their human health impacts are estradiol-17β, progesterone, testosterone, zeranol, trenbolone, and melengestrol acetate (MGA) .
In April 1999, the European Commission published an Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health (SCVPH) on the potential risks to human health from the residues in meat and meat products of hormonally active substances used for growth promotion purposes in cattle, in particular the six hormones, 17ß-oestradiol, testosterone, zeranol, progesterone, trenbolone acetate and melengestrol acetate [2,3].
It was showed the irrefutable evidence and identified risk to consumers who use the products with different levels of said six hormones. Secondly, the impact of these six hormones on endocrine, mental, immunological , neurobiological , immunotoxic , genotoxic and carcinogenic change effects could be envisaged for different risk groups. It was noted that children make up the group at greatest risk of all risk groups. Thirdly, as a result of the inherent properties of hormones and taking into account the results of epidemiological studies, it is impossible to establish any initial levels, and consequently the rate and daily consumption of these six existing hormones to apply them in order to stimulate the growth of animals.
Over the last few years there have been a number of publications that have had a substantial impact on our thinking on the effects of endogenous and exogenous estrogens on the incidence of breast cancer. Statistically significant relationships for several hormones were found The strongest associations were for 17β-oestradiol (stronger still when only the protein-free fraction was considered) and testosterone. The relationship with testosterone was markedly weakened after adjustment for 17β-oestradiol; this is consistent with the relationship being determined by conversion of testosterone to 17β-oestradiol by the action of the aromatase enzyme.
Particular considerations include the low quantities of hormonal compounds consumed in meat products and their relationships to endogenous production particularly in prepubertal children, enterohepatic inactivation, cellular receptor and non-receptor-mediated effects and potential for interference with growth, development and physiological function in consumers. There is particular concern about the role of oestradiol-17beta as a carcinogen in certain tissues.
In the different parts of the world the regulation regarding the use of such hormones differs sharply. In the European Union there exists a total ban on such use in contrast to the United States of American where the use of some hormones is authorized under strict conditions.
In the highly competitive market of meat products unsolved problem is the systematization of regulatory documents, which should provide the ordering requirements for production, sales and quality assurance and safety of manufactured products for household consumption and exports.
In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials more suitabled for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis [4].
Comparing the Ukrainian and international standards has been showed that there is a difference between Ukrainian and international standards. In the Ukrainian standards demands for quality and safety for specific groups of products are articulated. International standards are not standards in our understanding because ones formulate only methodology for determining the content of certain substances in meat products required to use all producers.
Consequently, the main difference is a different approach to the methodological basis for the creation of the current regulatory documents. In Ukraine, a complex system of vertical is used, this standards are developed for each classification unit. In international practice a horizontal system of legal acts (directives) for a wide range of products on the principles of Codex Alimentarius is used.
So, now the quality of the meat is very important problem for consumers because meat is one of the main food for healthy person. Modern manufacturers simply turn it into a potentially dangerous health product. No one admits that today animal hormones, antibiotics and other chemicals promoted the growth and maturation of livestock and poultry are used. And these substances have a negative impact on human health and can even lead to serious diseases. In comparison of Ukrainian and international quality standards for meat products large differences in approaches to methodological basis for the creation of the current regulatory documents were found. EU standards require strict compliance with safety and food quality. For a country that can not provide tracking all stages of production road to the European market is closed.

Reference: 1. Risk assessment of growth hormones and antimicrobial residues in meat // 2. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures. Effects of sex hormones on reproduction // 3. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures. Pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of 17β-oestradiol in humans // 4. Hormones in meat: different approaches in the EU and in the USA.

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